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内部教学参考资料:英语语法概念  

2009-04-11 08:41:58|  分类: 技巧方法点拨 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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   中国人学习英语,不管是听说口语还是考级别证书,都需要有一定的语法概念。但遗憾的是:很多人越学,对语法概念中的时态、词法、句法、结构等语法规则越是糊涂,这是造成英语学习困难的一个重要因素。为此,我们把主要语法项目编印成了这份简明易懂的图表形式,以助拓普各班学员更好地学习英语, 但务请注意:千万不要死钻语法“牛角尖”,否则会把自己给搞糊涂了,特别是听说口语,对语法不是要求那么严格。此外,

语法不敌习惯用法,不要用语法框框来解释习惯用法。

(一)英语时态简表示意图(主要在动词上变化)

一般

进行

完成

完成进行

 

现在

 

Work

Works   √

Am working

Is working   √

Are working

Has worked

Have worked

     √

Has (have) been

Working

     √

过去

 

Worked  √

Was working √

Were working 

Had worked

     √

Had been working   √

将来

 

Shall work

Will work   √

Shall (will) be working

Shall (will) have worked

Shall (will) have

Been working

过去将来

 

Should work

Would work  √

Should (would) be working

Should (would)

Have worked

Should (would)

Have been working

以上16种时态里,最常用的仅有10种,即:1、一般现在时、2、一般过去时、3、现在进行时、4、过去进行时、5、一般将来时、6、过去将来时、7、现在完成时、8、过去完成时、9、现在完成进行时、10、过去完成时。不常用的时态大体了解即可。

(二)英语句子按使用目的分类

陈述句

肯定陈述句

 

否定陈述句

They have five English classes every week.

 

They don’t have five English classes every week.

 

 

疑问句

一般疑问句

Do they have five English classes every week?

(Yes, they do.)

特殊疑问句

What classes do they have every week?

(They have English classes every week.)

反意疑问句

They have English classes every week, don’t they?

(Yes, they do.)

选择疑问句

Do they have English or Chinese classes today?

(They have English classes today.)

祈使句

肯定祈使句

Open your books, please.

否定祈使句

Don’t open your books.

感叹句

How+形+主+谓

How exciting the news is!

What +a+名+主+谓

What a wonderful time we have had today!

(三)英语句子按结构分类

种类

语法定义与例句

备注

简单句

简单句只包含一个主谓结构。

Tom and  Jack  are good friends.

The boys can read and write well.

Boys and girls are singing and dancing there.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

并列复合句

并列复合句包含两个或两个以上的互不依从的简单句,并由并列词或标点符号连接。

They study hard and speak English very well.

He got up late, so he didn’t come to class on time.

Hurry up, or you’ll be late.

常用的连词为:and; not only…but also; neither…nor…; or; but; yet; however; for; so; therefore等

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

主从复合句包含两个或两个以上的主谓结构,其中一个主谓结构是句子的主体,称为主句。另外的一个或若干个主谓结构不能独立,只能作为全句中的某一个成分,称为从句,主从复合句之间由关联词连接。

 

各种从句的关联词见表四

主语从句

I’m afraid my little brother can’t pass the exam.

其作用相当于名词,在句中作主语、表语、宾语。

表语从句

That is what we should do.

宾语从句

I know (that) he goes to school on foot.

定语从句

The man who is standing there is our new teacher.

其作用相当于形容词,作定语。

状语从句

时间状语从句

 

地点状语从句

原因状语从句

 

目的状语从句

 

结果状语从句

 

比较状语从句

条件状语从句

I was doing my homework when you came in.

Put the books where they are.

I won’t go to see the film because I have seen it before.

The teacher spoke aloud so that the students could hear him.

The flowers are so beautiful that we all like them.

He does better than he did last time.

If you don't work hard, you won’t pass the exam.

 

 

其作用相当于副词,作状语

 

 

(四)各种英语从句所用关联词

 

类别

连接从句

 

主、表、宾语从句

定语从句

状语从句

 

 

从属连词that引导名词性从句,无词义。从属连词if做“是否”解时,引导宾语从句或同谓语从句

从属连词

That, whether, if

 

When, before, after, since, because, if, although, where

连接代词

Who, (whom, whose),what, whic

 

连接副词

When, where, why, how

关系代词

 

Who,  (whom, whose), that, whi

关系副词

 

When, where, why, how

 

Wish you success in learning English!

 

拓普外国语培训学校

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